Bodoni

 

Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodoni

Bodoni is a series of serif typefaces first designed by Giambattista Bodoni (1740–1813) in 1798. The typeface is classified as Didone modern. Bodoni followed the ideas of John Baskerville, as found in the printing type Baskerville, that of increased stroke contrast and a more vertical, slightly condensed, upper case, but taking them to a more extreme conclusion. Bodoni had a long career and his designs evolved and differed, ending with a typeface of narrower underlying structure with flat, unbracketed serifs, extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes, and an overall geometric construction. Though these later designs are rightfully called “modern”, the earlier designs are “transitional”. Among digital versions, there are two good examples of the earlier, transitional period: Sumner Stone’s ITC Bodoni, and Günther Lange’s “Bodoni Old Face” for Berthold. Virtually all other versions are based on Bodoni’s most extreme late manner.

Bodoni admired the work of John Baskerville and studied in detail the designs of French type founders Pierre Simon Fournier and Firmin Didot. Although he drew inspiration from the work of these designers,[citation needed] above all from Didot, no doubt Bodoni found his own style for his typefaces, which deservedly gained worldwide acceptance among printers.

Some digital versions of Bodoni are said to suffer from a particular kind of legibility degradation known as “dazzle” caused by the alternating thick and thin strokes, particularly from the thin strokes being very thin at small point sizes. This only occurs when display versions are used at text sizes, and it is also true of much display type that is used at text sizes. Non-dazzling versions of Bodoni that are intended to be used at text size are “Bodoni Old Face”, optimized for 9 points, and ITC Bodoni 12 (for 12 points) and ITC Bodoni 7 (for 7 points).

Beyond us…

  • What is Space?
  • Space is the limitless, boundless, three-dimensional extent where objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Generally, physical space is conceived in 3 linear dimensions, although modern physicists typically consider it (along with time) to be part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum that is known as spacetime.
  • In the world of mathematics, ‘spaces’ are usually examined with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures. Space, the concept, is generally considered to be of critical importance to an understanding of the physical universe – although philosophers disagree about whether space is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.
  • In the view of the great English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian Isaac Newton (1643-1727), space was absolute – in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space. Other philosophers such as Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from each another.
  • In the 18th century, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant described space and time as elements of a systematic framework that humans use to structure their experience. In 1905, the brilliant theoretical physicist and philosopher, Albert Einstein, published a paper on a special theory of relativity, where he proposed that space and time be combined into a single construct known as spacetime.
  • Ultimately, space is best described as the continuous extension in all directions in which all matter exists, and this is our final answer to the question, what is space?
  • What is Outer Space?
  • Outer space is generally described as anything beyond the atmosphere of Earth. There is no air to scatter the light, thus what we see when we look up into the night sky is a black emptiness spangled with stars, planets and other extraterrestrial matter. It is important to understand however, that ‘space’ does actually include everything within the Earth’s atmosphere as well as all of the land and water on its surface.
  • Taken from http://issuu.com/jonathangranger/docs/what_is_space_book_